The Executive Office for Immigration Review (EOIR) is an office of the United States Department of Justice and is responsible for adjudicating all immigration cases in the United States. EOIR oversees immigration courts in the United States through the Office of the Chief Immigration Judge. Additionally, the Board of Immigration Appeals, which hears appeals from immigration courts, is part of EOIR.

The chief function of EOIR is to conduct removal proceedings, which are administrative proceedings to determine the removability and admissibility of individuals in the United States. Removal proceedings are conducted in immigration courts. As of September 7, 2019, there are Sixty-Four immigration courts throughout the United States.

Immigration judges are thus employees of the Justice Department in the executive branch, rather than part of the judicial branch defined by Article 3 of the United States Constitution. That status is the subject of ongoing debate among immigration and legal scholars.


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